The basic definition of a gene is that it is a physical and functional unit of heredity. They are formed of DNA. Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of every cell in our body. Genes are located on chromosomes. Genes are responsible for all the characteristics or traits that you possess. Every human body consists of approx 25000 genes in their body.
The embryo receives a chromosome from both the mother and the father. It receives a Total of 46 chromosomes from both of them.23 from the sperm and other 23 from the egg.22 chromosomes are identical in the embryo. The 23rd chromosome (sex chromosome) can be either the X or Y chromosome.
As discussed above the one chromosome that can be either x or y is responsible for gender determination. If both the sex chromosomes are x then a baby girl is born. On the flip side, if one chromosome is X and another is Y a baby boy is born.
Another notable point is that the chromosome released by an egg will always be x. Whereas the one received by the sperm can be x or y. In short, the chromosome received by the father is responsible for the determination of gender.
Reasons For Genetic Disorders
As we all know that genes are passed from parent to child. Genes consist of DNA which is responsible for giving instructions for protein formation. Most of the work in cells is done by proteins.
Sometimes there is a change in a particular gene or genes which is known as mutation. The mutation leads to a change in the instructions given by DNA for making proteins. This is known or rather referred to as a genetic disorder.
Gene mutation can be inherited from either the mother or the Father. Genetic disorders are broadly classified into three types discussed below.
Single Gene Disorders
In this disorder, only a single gene is affected.
Chromosomal Gene Disorder
In this type of disorder, chromosomes are missing in the cells.
Complex Gene Disorder
There is a mutation in multiple genes in this disorder.
There are various medical tests that can help you identify these disorders. Moreover, these genetic disorders are known to affect many body systems badly. Although there are some disorders that have no treatment there are various treatments to manage the signs and symptoms.
Dietary changes might be suggested in order to avoid food items that promote toxin build-up. Furthermore, enzyme replacement therapy is also suggested in some cases.
Following the patients can help prevent future complications. It is necessary to get the treatment at the right time as some genetic disorders can lead to serious diseases like cancer.
It is often seen that genetic disorders lead to miscarriage. This is the main reason why getting proper treatment is of utmost importance.
The Bottom Line
This was some of the main information related to genes and genetic disorders. If you notice the symptoms of genetic disorders then you must get yourself diagnosed.
There is no point in waiting for the situation to get any worse. Moreover, if you do not take relevant action on time some harmful diseases are on their way to you.